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Introduction

Hazardous Area Classification

Table of contents: 1. General requirements 2. Hazardous area classification drawings 3. Equipment selection 4. Suppression of ignition sources 5. Hot surfaces temperature limitations General Requirements The purpose of hazardous area classification is to avoid ignition of those releases, which inevitably occur from time to time in the operation of the facilities handling flammable liquids and gas. The approach is ...

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Piping Stress Critical Linelist: Format and Use, Responsibilities and Method of Operation

Format and Use of Piping Critical Line List The Piping Critical Line List is normally an internal document. The Piping Critical Line List comprises of a lead sheet (s) and continuation sheet (s). Lead Sheet The lead sheet is used to summarise the definitions of critical lines applicable codes etc. and amended to reflect any specific requirements of the contract ...

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Piping Stress Critical Lines: Procedure Defining the Basis For Piping Critical Line List

Below procedure defines the basis to establish piping critical line list from line list, P & I Diagrams and Piping Specification. What is Piping Critical Line: A piping critical line is a line for which a flexibility review is required to be carried out by a Piping Stress Engineer due to temperature, weight, supporting arrangement, external loading, lines connection to ...

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Welding Processes: FCAW, GMAW, GTAW, SMAW, SAW

In process industry there are many pipes which are running across the plant transferring different fluid from source to the destination. These pipes are generally manufactured in a standard length of 6 metres or 12 meters so the pipes are joined together to achieve the required routing. The most common method of joining pipes is by welding two pipe spools ...

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Drainage Systems on Offshore Platform: Overview, Open Drain System and Low Point Drains

About Drainage Systems on Offshore Platform Offshore platform drainage and waste disposal systems shall be designed in accordance with API RP 14E “Recommended Practice for Design and Installation of Offshore Production Platform Piping Systems” and all national, state and local codes and regulations. The design of all offshore platform drainage and waste disposal systems shall be subject to approval by ...

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Minimum Pipe Spacing Chart

In petrochemical & refinery plants there are many pipes which are running from source to destination. In most of the cases there is pipe rack between the plant units which carry these pipes and distribute it across the plant. When the pipes are running next to each other there should be some minimum spacing between the pipes so that there ...

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Furnace & Fired Equipment: Layout and Direct Fire Heater Piping Guidelines

Furnace and Fired Equipment: Layout guidelines: Within the battery limits of a process unit several furnaces in the same or different services, together with their associated close coupled equipment, may be located in a single area and shall be separated within that area only as required for operational and maintenance access. Fired heaters are a constant source of ignition and ...

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Guniting: Method for Fireproofing of Pipes

1.0 Introduction to Fireproofing Fireproofing is employed in refineries and petrochemical plants to minimize the escalation of a fire that would occur with the failure of structural supports and the overheating of pressure vessels. The damage that fire could potentially do very early on, could add significant fuel to the fire. This section is for the materials and construction of ...

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