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Introduction

Steam Turbines: Force/Moment Calculation

NEMA – SM 23 requires that the forces and moments acting on steam turbines due to the steam inlet, extraction, and exhaust connections should be evaluated by simple set of force/moment calculation similar to centrifugal compressors. These computations shall be done as below. The total resultant force and total resultant moment imposed on the turbine at any connection should not ...

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Flexibility Stresses: Code Equations

Flexibility stresses The piping system experiences different type of stresses when it is installed, tested and in operation. There are different codes according to which the system is designed, each code has different formula for calculating the stress induced in the piping system. Below mentioned are the code equations: 1. ANSI B 31.1 – Power Piping The Power Piping Code ...

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Safety Relief Valve: A Pressure Relieving Device

Table of contents: 1. Relief System 2. API 521 Sizing Criteria 3. Relief System – Pressure Terminology 4. Code Requirements 5. Pressure relieving methods 6. Relief valves 7. General Types of Safety Relief Valve Design 8. Advantages / Disadvantages Conventional Valve 9. Balanced Bellows Spring Loaded Safety Relief Valve 10. Advantages / Disadvantages Balanced Bellows Valve 11. Piston Type Pilot ...

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Flare System: Types, Segregation, Tips, Purge System and More

Table of contents: 1. Types of Flare 2. Segregation of Flares 3. Flare Knock-Out Drum 4. Flare KOD Liquid Removal 5. Flare KOD sizing depends on two aspects 6. Liquid Seal Drum 7. Purge reduction seals 8. Flare Purge system 9. Flare stack 10. Flare Structure 11. Flare Tip 12. Ringlemann Chart 13. Pilot burner 14. Pilot Ignition 15. Other ...

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Deluge Water Spray System

Table of contents: 1. Deluge Water Spray System 2. Factors determining the requirement of Deluge Water Spray System 3. Type of Deluge Valves 4. Deluge valve – Principle of Operation 5. Deluge Valve & By-Pass Valves & Location 6. Deluge Skid Specifications/ Requirements 7. Water Spray Nozzles 8. Piping Requirements for Deluge System 1. Deluge Water Spray System: An automated ...

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What is Fire and Gas System

Table of contents: Introduction I. Gas Detectors 1. Flammable Gas Detectors a. Catalytic (Pellistor) Gas Detectors b. Infrared Gas Detectors c. Open Path (Line of Sight) Gas Detectors 2. Toxic Gas Detectors a. Electro-chemical cell type b. Semi-conductor (MOS) type II. Fire Detectors 1. Smoke Detectors a. Ionisation Smoke Detector b. Photoelectric (Optical) Smoke Detector 2. Heat Detectors: a. Fixed ...

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Loads on Piping System

Stress analysis and safe design normally require appreciation of several related concepts. An approximate list of the steps that would be involved is as follows: Identify potential loads that would come on to the pipe or piping system during its entire life. Relate each one of these loads to the stresses and strains that would be developed in the crystals/grains ...

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Guide to Level Instruments Principles & Application

Level monitoring and control is a fundamental requirement in any process plant. You will find level instrumentation installed at even the simplest treatment plants for pump control, chemical storage tanks and process level controls or alarms. Though the P&IDs or other documents provided as part of the FEED or during detail engineering generally indicate the type of instruments still it ...

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SIL (Safety Integrity Level) Overview

Introduction to SIL (Safety Integrity Level) Terminologies SAFETY: “Freedom from Unacceptable Risk” ALARP   : “As Low As Reasonably Practicable” RISK: “Freqncy of occurrence of hazard causingharm and conseqnce of the harm” Risk = freqncy x conseqnce Safety Systems Engineering (SSE) A disciplined, systematic approach encompassing hazard identification, safety requirement  specifications, safety system design, building, operation and maintenance over the ...

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Nozzle Orientation Drawing

The objective of this post is to describe the requirements for preparation and issue of Nozzle Orientation. 1. Intent of Nozzle Orientation Nozzle Orientation drawing is prepared per equipment taking into consideration Process, Operation and maintenance requirements to: Orient all nozzles, manholes and lifting arrangement. Define equipment mounted platforms / ladders Orient and locate equipment supporting arrangement. Typically Nozzle Orientation ...

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