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Optical Fibre

Importance of Optical Fibre in Oil & Gas Sector

We all have heard about optical fibre and its wide applications in various industries. But many of us know very little about its features and reason for its usage in different applications. This post gives some brief knowledge & features of optical fibre used in oil and gas industry.

1. Optical Communication

–became a part of daily life due to

  •  Tremendous increase in communication requirement
  •  Tremendous Requirement of Data Transmission
  •  Internet communication
  •  Cable TV
  •  Information security
  •  Signaling and Control requirement
  •  Intelligent Security systems

2. Why Optical Communication?

–a revolution in communication by virtue of

  •  Secured communication due to use of light as signal in glass
  • Less signal loss over transmission length
  • Low power requirement
  • Digital Transmission, hence clarity
  • Non-flammable transmission media
  • Lightweight transmission media
  • Flexible transmission media
  • Immune to EMI, RFI



3. Optical Fibre: Basic Construction

  • Basic construction :
    • Core
    • Cladding
    • Coating
    Optical fibre coating

    Optical fibre coating

    Optical Fibre Construction

    Optical Fibre: Basic Construction

    • Transmission media : Glass
    • Signal : Light
    • Working principles : Total internal reflection
    Optical Fibre Working principles

    Optical Fibre Working principles

    4. Optical Fibre Types

    • Single mode Fibre: For Long Haul Communication, High Bandwidth, Low attenuation
      • G 652 Fibre
      • G653 Fibre
      • G655 Fibre
    • Multi modeFibre: Short haul communication, like LAN, WAN
    • Multi mode 50 / 125 microns
    • Multimode 62.5/125 microns

    5. Optical Fibre in Oil & Gas sector

    Demand of Oil & Gas Industry for broadband communication has been high due to following factors;

    •  Aggressive exploration in deep water areas
    • Substantial increase in real time data generation and transmission to other location
    •  Requirement for deployment of more sophisticated process control systems in offshore
    •  Increase in automation to reduce manning cost at offshore rigs
    •  Better communication between offshore and onshore locations
    •  Improve life of personal working on offshore rigs

    6. Application area of Optical Fibre in Oil & Gas sector

    •  Offshore
    •  Onshore
    •  Refinery
    •  Transportation
    •  Inter-office communication / Data Transfer
    •  Project sites control

    7. Application of Optical Fibre in Oil & Gas sector




    Offshore

    • Communication link between adjacent platforms
    •  Communication link between Process Well to Process Platforms
    •  Communication with  Un-manned platforms
    •  Communication between Offshore & On-shore installation
    •  Process control
    •  High Noise Sub-sea machinery controls due to Noise Immune communication
    • Reduced size of umbilical

    On-Shore

    •   Data transfer and Communication between various land installations / offices
    •  Secure communication systems with high speed transfer rates
    •  Monitoring & control of project sites

    8. Cable designs for Land Application

    Basic Requirements of optical fibre:

    • Mechanical Strength
    • Easy and quick installation
    • Longer lengths
    • Light weight & flexibility
    • Protection against chemicals , environment

    Features / Advantages of optical fibre

    • Corrugated Steel Tape Protects Against Rodents and Rough Terrain
    • Single Jacket and Multi-jacket Designs Available
    • Standard Fiber Counts up to 288 (Custom Available)

    Typical Construction of optical fibre

    Optical Fibre Typical Construction

    Optical Fibre Typical Construction

    9. Cable design for Submarine application

    Basic Requirements of optical fibre:

    • Very high Tensile strength depending upon installation conditions (varies from 20kN to higher)
    • Heavy weight in order to get into the sea bed
    • Strong mechanical protection against external damages
    • Very high weight to diameter ratio

    Features / Advantages of optical fibre

    • Steel wire armouring to protection against external pressure (single 0r multiple layers
    • Single Jacket and Multi-jacket Designs Available
    • Standard Fiber Counts up to 96 (Custom Available)

    Typical Construction of optical fibre

    Cable design for Submarine application

    Cable design for Submarine application

    10. Optical communication Vs Conventional system

    Benefits of optical communication over conventional system

    Copper Optical Fibre
    High Losses Low Losses
    Costlier Less Expensive
    Unsecured Secured & Reliable
    Immune to EMI, RFI Free from EMI, RFI
    Limited BW Unlimited BW
    Shorter Life Longer Life

    Cost advantage of Optical Communication over Copper Communication

    • Less Installation cost and time due to smaller size & light weight
    • Very less cost of cable w.r.t availability of no. of channels
    • There is no atmospheric interference on OFC communication
    •  Less maintenance cost due to quick fault location and repair
    • Less joints due to longer length hence less cost of link

    11. Optical communication Vs Microwave dish system

    Supremacy of Optical Communication over Microwave dish systems

    • Higher bandwidth
    • Highly reliable
    • Immune to atmospheric conditions
    • No recurring cost
    • Low latency (less than 10ms)
    • Highly secured

    Cost advantage of Optical Communication over Microwave dish system

    • No recurring cost compared to WPC charges for  Microwave communication
    • Less maintenance compared to Microwave , where we have to maintain the antenna tower
    • There is no atmospheric interference on OFC communication

    12. Conclusion

    Optical fibre is the best suitable option for Oil & Gas sector for

    • Communication
    • Data transfer
    • Process control & monitoring
    • Un-interrupted & secure information flow across various installation
    • Reduction in manning cost at offshore rigs
    • Additional business opportunity for bandwidth leasing
    • Safety & Security of installations

One comment

  1. Great article.

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